Your divorce proceedings have concluded and you have paid your final attorney fee bill. Wondering if any of those fees are deductible on your personal income tax return? The general rule is that a taxpayer may not deduct attorney fees incurred in connection with a divorce or separation because this matter is considered to be personal and the Internal Revenue Code does not permit the deduction of personal, living, or family expenses. I.R.C. § 262(a). However, there are exceptions to this rule that may allow you to deduct some of your legal expenses related to your divorce, so long as you plan to itemize your deductions and your total miscellaneous deductions exceed 2% of your adjusted gross income (AGI). If you do not itemize deductions or your deductions do not pass the 2% adjusted gross income test, then you cannot deduct these fees.
Alimony Related Legal Fees:
IRC §212(1) allows an individual to deduct ordinary and necessary expenses paid or incurred during the taxable year for the production or collection of income. A spouse seeking taxable income, such as alimony, may deduct a portion of their legal fees related to his/her alimony claim because alimony is includable in the recipient’s gross income. A spouse may also deduct legal fees and expenses associated with a modification of alimony or to collect alimony arrearages. Additionally, if a spouse seeking alimony incurs accounting fees relating to their claim for alimony those accountant fees may also be deductible. Fees incurred to hire a vocational expert, to the extent the fees relate to obtaining alimony, may also be deductible. In order to deduct legal fees relating to a claim for alimony, the alimony recipient should pay all deductible legal fees in one year.
It is notable that a party defending against an award or collection of alimony cannot deduct his or her legal fees, nor can either spouse deduct legal fees associated with the collection of child support.
Fees Related to Tax Advice:
IRC §212(3) allows an individual to deduct ordinary and necessary expenses paid or incurred during the taxable year in connection with the determination, collection, or refund of any tax. Some examples of advice that may be allocated to tax planning or production of income are:
- Tax advice concerning the rights to claim dependency exemptions;
- Characterization and treatment of alimony obligations;
- Costs of determining the adjusted basis of assets in the property settlement;
- Costs of obtaining advice regarding the tax consequences of divorce or separation instrument; or of gathering information for actual preparation of tax returns; and
- Costs of securing an interest in a qualified retirement plan (such as those paid to divide your and your former spouse’s defined contribution plans).
For legal fees incurred in connection with a divorce to be deductible, your attorney must determine what portion of the fee is allocable to tax advice as opposed to non-deductible advice or other services and render an itemized bill. According to IRS Revenue Ruling 72-245, the agency will accept a lawyer's allocation of his or her fee between tax and nontax matters where the attorney allocates primarily on the basis of the amount of time attributable to each, the customary charge in the locality for similar services and the results obtained in the divorce negotiations.
Note: This information is general in nature and should not be construed as tax advice. You should consult with your tax accountant